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Low Latency Profiling in Java

Page history last edited by Adam Mathewz 6 months, 1 week ago

What is Low Latency in Java?

Latency refers to the interval of time between the stimulation and the response to stimulation. It means viewing the System Response time. Low Latency describes the efficiency of a networked system in terms of its data handling capacity at a higher concurrency level.


Why is Low Latency desired?

High-performance applications demand point to point connections optimized to reduce Latency for urgent financial trading centers. Controlling Latency at its optimum level is the crucial aspect of any big data dealing company like the BFSI sector and Healthcare. In a complex business process, where multiple departments deal with a high volume of individual records and the data transaction possibilities are enormous, Java-based applications are a right choice due to very high concurrency expectations, the simultaneous user accesses, and that too with the maintenance of data abstraction layers, security, and encryption.  


How Is Latency Characterized?

Every operation has its Latency. With hundreds of activities, there are hundreds of latency measurements. There is no single way of measuring the Latency based on several processes per second or volume of data transaction per time interval.


What Contributes to Latency?

There could be multiple valid reasons behind it. The following outlined items situate the purpose of a Latency cause:

1. Hardware Interrupts.

2. Hypervisor Pauses.

3. Network/IO delays.

4. Garbage Collection Pauses.

5. Context Switches.

6. OS activities e.g., flushing buffers, rebuilding internal structures, etc.


These events are mostly generally random. These do not resemble normal distributions themselves. Latency reduction is intimately in sync with considerations, like the following:

  • The CPU/Cache/Memory architecture

  • JVM architecture and design

  • Application design — concurrency, data structures and algorithms, and caching

  • Networking protocols, etc.


OpenJDK contributors have introduced powerful low-latency profiling capabilities backward into the Java version 8.0. It has enabled Java developers for hire to manage and monitor JVM performance with low overhead. You can now avail of the Flight Recorder, in several open-source implementations.

JFR i.e., Java Flight Recorder, was introduced for over a decade and built the fundamental performance monitoring potential for JRockit and WebLogic Server. In Java 8 Hotspot and JDK 7u40 time-frame, this tool was introduced. JRockit and HotSpot intersected to facilitate a single JVM implementation. It slightly differs from the external performance monitoring system. JFR is built into the JDK directly and can supervise performance accurately, without misleading the readers via safe points or sampling. As a resultant, through JFR, the act of measuring puts just a 2% overhead. These remove a lot of assumptions by the developers, and they become better able to gather the actual performance data.

In OpenSource JDK version 11.0, the code of JFR was made available to the developers' community without incurring any additional cost. Before this, this capability was available with a commercial proposition, and a JDK SE Advanced licensing was mandatory. To turn the feature on in the Oracle JDK, you would have needed a commercial feature flag or a JMX connection that enables commercial features. JFR comes to the developers with two primary mechanisms: 

  • Flight Recorder – It is an automated black box recorder that is already present inside the JVM and acts to record information. 

  • Mission Control – It is the visual console, runs on a different system that helps operators to monitor and control the black box by evaluating metrics or creating performance snapshots.


A few significant differences are visible between JFR and other Commercial & Public profilers. JFR is present in the JVM from beforehand, and you do not require to integrate any additional tool. Other profilers focus on high-level metrics like request/response load times. Parameters provided by default in JFR are aimed more towards the JVM's core operations. Example: the Advance Garbage Collection Analysis. Unlike other tools, which report simple garbage collection statistics, the analysis capabilities within JFR also prepare the data, who has collected the garbage and who has thrown away. Due to this capability, developers can easily understand what all are explicitly required to improve their performance.


Low-latency Java for highly predictable performance-

Zing is the new performance standard for Java. Zing comes with advance technology and algorithm to consistently deliver low latency Java performance specifically for Retail segment and Advertising Networks. It could be Machine to Machine or User to Machine interactions and processing; Zing comes with an utterly super performance of Low Latency management.


Also Read - Surprising ways in which you can use Java.

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